Evolution of Android : The operating system story
From the inaugural release till date, the evolution of Android was conceptual, functional and visually pleasing with passing time. The OS (operating system) from the google was started on a dull note. But, now has changed the phase of mobile app development.
What is Android OS ?
It was launched 10 years back; on November 5, 2007 and has come a long way. Till now, Android is the biggest platform for mobile apps. Moreover, android is not limited to smartphones and tablets but also shifting to smart TV, autos and smart watches. From the first beta version of android P (Pie) let’s take a look back into Android rise from the launch to acquisition by google and current market presence.
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Initial years of Android :
On October, 2003, Android Inc. was established by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White. Their main motive was to build an advanced OS for the camera, by transforming them into “ smart devices that are aware of ,the location and the preferences ”.
Later on they find out that there was apparently not much market interest in this service. So, Android Inc. changed their focus towards smartphones. This sector was so competitive since Android has to compete against Symbian and Windows OS.
Due to their shaky start and funding was always an issue. Later on Android Inc. was acquired by Google on August 17, 2005, along with their staffs. A team lead by Rubin was working on mobile device OS based on the Linux Kernel. The green android logo was designed by Irina Blok, and the beta version was unveiled on November 5, 2007.
So, now go through the android version history over these years.
Android 1.0 :
It was very first commercial version of android termed as ‘ Android 1.0 ’. The version was unveiled on September 23, 2008. Even though it was the first version, Android 1.0 was unveiled features like an internet browser, camera, Gmail synchronisation with the Gmail application, YouTube, google maps and calendar synchronisation.
Later on Android 1.1 was launched on February 9, 2009, with updated features and few bug fixes. It was followed by 1.5 ( Cupcake ) on April 27, 2009 and Android 1.6 on September 15, 2009. These versions were released on a time interval of 3 months and were more focused on fixing bugs.
Android 2.0 Eclair :
Android launched their 2nd major release on October 26, 2009, and was termed as ‘ Eclair ’. The main attraction was email support for Microsoft Exchange, along the side capacity to go through messages from various account in the same inbox. The camera application also get real-time update like slash support, different zoom modes, shading effects and focus mode.
Android 2.0.1 was discharged on December 3, 2009, followed by Android 2.1 on January 12, 2010 both bringing minor advancement and bug fixes.
The next release was on May 20, 2010. It was termed as Froyo. This update has various performance optimization. USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionalities were introduced in Android 2.2.
Android 2.3 Gingerbread :
This version was released on December 6, 2010.
It had features like :
- Brand new UI which was focused more on convenience and speed.
- Upgraded onscreen console for more instinctive content info and precision.
- New download manager made monitoring documents downloaded from the web simpler than ever.
Android 3.0 Honeycomb :
On February 22, 2011, google rolled its first tablet-oriented Android update; Android 3.0 Honeycomb.
It had some brand new feature like :
- “ Holographic ” UI was introduced with the update.
- The System Bar brought notification and the buttons to the bottom of the screen.
- UI has multiple browser tabs.
- “ Incognito ” mode was enables for individual browsing.
- Multicore processors were made compatible for the first time.
It has introduced the new age of intense Android gadgets.
Android 3 was released on May, 2011 and brought USB connectivity and widgets on home screen. A further release, Android 3.2, included support for Google TV.
Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich :
This version was dispatched on October 18, 2011 and was guaranteed to be compatible with any device running on Android 2.3 on later.
- Robot was made as the default font for android.
- Files were updated to be simpler.
- Applications could be accessed from the lock screen.
- Camera application was enhanced and now upheld 1080p video recording.
- Internet browser could now synchronise with user chrome bookmarks.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean :
On July 9, 2012 ; Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was revealed and the main reason for the update was to enhance the UI in both features.
Features added then :
- Graphics were given special consideration.
- Incorporated technology that would help the interface to run at 60 frames per second for a smooth and responsive service.
- Sound quality has been improved with multi-channel support.
- Unlimited playback and USB audio.
- 3rd party apps analysation.
Android 4.4 KitKat :
KitKat OS was so successful for android. It was launched on October 31, 2013 first device was Nexus 5.
Some features were :
- A new “ Immersive mode ”.
- NFC was added but it wasn’t so successful as expected [online payments].
Android 5.0 Lollipop :
It was first declared on June 25, 2014 and was officially rolled out on November 12, 2014.
Some features are :-
- Notification can be seen on lock screen.
- Allowed 3rd party apps to share on external memory.
- Effective lock functionality.
Android Auto :
It helps for maps navigation and Spotify for unlimited music streaming.
Android 6.0 Marshmello :
This version was released on May 2015 at the Google I/O conference and was available for various devices in October 2015.
Features added :
- “ Now on Tap ” a new feature was enabled.
- Battery optimisation.
- Utilisation on Micro SD card.
- First time fingerprint unlocking.
Android 7 Nougat :
It has arrived on August 2016.
Features added :
- It has split-screen mode enabled.
- Quick reply ability.
Android 8 Oreo :
Android Oreo gets its name from another snack and was declared back in March 2017 as Android 0 ( on Android 8 ) it wasn’t until August 21, 2017, when the Android Oreo name was confirmed. Google on the very same day launched the final build of its new platform of gadgets for its beta program, which consisted of Pixel, Pixel X1 and Nexus 6P.
Android 9 Pie :
It is the latest version of Google’s operating system, which is mainly focused on simple and AI powered efficiency.
Features added :
- Adaptive battery life.
- Adaptive brightness.
- The application actions enable you to bounce to your next task, without opening the app.
Android 10 :
It is the 10th extensive version of the android operating system. It has developed under the codename “ Android O ” on March 13, 2019 and beta version was April 3, 2019.
Features added :
- Permission to access location in the background.
- Floating panel.
- Support for an AV1 video codec.
- Biometric authentication.
- Support the WAP3 Wi-Fi security.
Android 11 :
It is the latest OS till date and was released on 8th September 2020.
Features added :-
- Conversations : Get all your message in one place.
- Accessibility : Perceptive apps help us to control and navigate our phone using voice command.
- Device controls :- Android 11 allows us to control all our connected devices (10T) from a single point.
- Content Capture.
- Predictive tools.
- Privacy and security.